existing ballast, which presents an eventual point of failure of an addi- tional 40W to 60W of load. In some cases, the LED lamp must be properly matched to the type of ballast (metal halide, high-pressure sodium, etc.). • Line-driven lamps. These lamps bypass the existing ballast and operate on line voltage (120V to 277V), eliminating the ballast and its associ- ated energy and maintenance costs. Some lamps qualify for listing by DLC. Light output varies but ranges from about 1,500 to 15,000 lumens. However, this option is typically more expensive in terms of labor than ballast-driven lamps, as a qualified electrician must perform the neces- sary electrical modifications to bring line voltage to the sockets. • Retrofit kits. A retrofit kit mod- ifies the existing luminaire in a way that will no longer accept HID lamps. This satisfies the utility because it eliminates the possibility of “snap- back” to less efficient technology. It also may provide a marginal efficacy improvement over lamp replacement. Many are listed by DLC, qualifying them for certain rebate programs. Often, installing a retrofit kit re- quires replacing the ballast with an LED driver. Secondary optics may be packaged with the kit. “Both LED replacement lamps and LED retrofit kits are a quickly growing area right now,” said Joseph Engle, product manager, new product inno- vation, Hubbell Lighting (hubbell lighting.com). “There is a good offer- ing of wattages, CRIs, and CCTs. Some are DLC listed. Most carry an industry-acceptable warranty be- tween five and 10 years.” The Right Application When applying LED replacement lamps and retrofit kits to HID lumi- naires, many factors must be consid- ered, including light output, lighting quality, socket condition, temperature and other environmental conditions, UL listing, and controls. • Light output. The majority of LED HID replacement lamps feature a “corncob” design, approximating the light emission of an HID lamp. Directional PAR lamps are also avail- able. These lamps and LED retrofit kits often feature a flat chip-on-board design. Be sure to make lumen compar- isons based on application light level needs, lumen depreciation rates, and luminaire optical efficiency. If the lamp is directional, be sure to con- sider center beam candlepower, which
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